Also referred to as the ‘St. Bartholomew’s Day of Monks’, the raid that caught Miloslav Frank at the Salesian grammar school in Přestavlky near Přerov took place at night from 13th to 14th April 1950. It was preceded by a month of StB (State Security) supervision. “Around mid-March the StB came with a government decree appointing an administrator to provide financial support of our houses. He did not do anything in particular, just watched to know who was who. He was observing who the superiors were, who the inferiors were and so on. All of us wore cassocks and he could not recognize who is who. When they came after a month, they already knew who the superiors were and who to take with them.” The superiors were taken to internment camps in Želiv and Osek; the students got the opportunity to enter the general seminar in Litoměřice. “We secretly got to Father Zink who was the vice-rector of the University in Olomouc and he told us: ‛Do not go to the seminar; if they push you, tell them you go and do not enter then.’ So that was what we did.”
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Action K is the name for the project of illegal elimination of monasteries and male catholic monastic orders that took place in the communist Czechoslovakia in April 1950. It was preceded by the staged trial of Machalka et al. involving order superiors, intended to provide ideological justification for the general public. 219 monastic houses were closed down and 2376 monks were interned during the action in Czechoslovakia. Movable and immovable property of orders was confiscated (though for real properties, this formally happened only later). The action resulted in a huge loss of cultural heritage as several monasteries started to fall into disrepair and others were intentionally destroyed; a lot of valuable printings disappeared and movable properties were misappropriated, for example an ancient furniture and so on. Soon after Action K, Action R followed. Action R was slower and it was aimed against nunneries. The last one, Action B was meant to formally eliminate all orders, but in did not materialize to a large extent. The first night when the monasteries were attacked and closed down has been nicknamed ‘St. Bartholomew’s Day of Monks’.